Buildings and Structures

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Alfred D. Price Funeral Establishment
212 East Leigh Street
Richmond, VA 23219

 
Inscribed on the Alfred D. Price History Marker (not shown) are the words:

Born into slavery in Hanover County in 1860, Alfred D. “A.D." Price moved to Richmond in the late 1870’s. Soon after coming to Richmond, he set up a blacksmith shop, which expanded into a livery stable and the funeral home that stands here now known as A.D. Price Funeral Establishment. In August 1894, Price became one of the first funeral directors in Virginia to receive a state embalming license. He served as its president from 1905 until his death on 9 April 1921.
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PICTURES:

L:
A.D. Price Funeral Establishment. R: Close up Funeral Establishment.  Pictures taken September 19, 2008.
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SOURCES:

Books
Plater, Michael A. "African American Entrepreneurship in Richmond, 1890-1940." New York: Garland Publishing, 1996. Print.
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Site Visit
A.D. Price Funeral Home. Richmond, VA. 19 Sept. 2008.
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SUBMITTED: September 21, 2008. 
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Chess Records
2120 S Michigan Avenue
Chicago, Illinois  60616
312-808-1286

       

Inscribed on the History Marker are the words:

In 1947, two nightclub businessmen, Leonard and Philip Chess, partnered with Aristocrat Records to start recording some of the artists who had performed at Chess’ various Chicago southside nightclubs.  The two brothers unleashed some of the otherwise untapped talent of Chicago’s most famous Blues, Jazz and rock musicians.  Prior to the Chess brothers’ involvement in the industry, no one recorded or promoted these performers properly.  In 1950, the Chess brothers reorganized the company and renamed it Chess records.

The ‘50s and ‘60’s were the prime years for Chess Records. Artists such as Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry, Howlin’ Wolf, Etta James, Willie Dixon, Little Walter,, Sonny Boy Williams and Elmore James flourished under the label or its subsidiary like Checker, Argo, and Cadet.  In 1948, Muddy Waters recorded “Rollin’ Stones Blues” here, a song that inspired Jimi Hendrix, Bob Dylan, and the creators of Rolling Stones Magazine.  Artists such as the Yardbirds and the Who would craft much of their style and material from recordings made in these studios. The Rolling Stones made the address immortal in an instrumental song entitled 2120 South Michigan, Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Louis and Buddy Holly, to name a few, copied sound produced here to catapult their own careers into the stratosphere.  They indeed paid homage to the greatness of these musicians who recorded in this studio.

In 1911, Horatio Wilson designed this two-story brick building for the sale and storage of automobile parts.  In 1957, John S. Townsend, Jr. and Jack S. Wiener remodeled the building for Chess Records. They outfitted the building with a recording studio, executive offices and 50’s style colors and “snappy” finishes.

Although modest in size and stature, the creativity within the walls of 2120 South Michigan was huge.  Undoubtedly Chess Records was the most productive and exciting recording studio in Chicago history.  On May 16, 1990 the building was designated a Chicago Landmark.
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PICTURES:

Top L, M/L:
Chess Records Studio. M/R: Plaque in front of building. R: History Marker.  
Bottom: History Marker.  Pictures taken July 2, 2011.
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SOURCES:

Site Visit
Chess Records Tour. Chicago, IL. 2 Jul. 2011.
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SUBMITTED: February 28, 2013. 
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Edmund Pettus Bridge
Selma, Alabama

  

Bloody Sunday

On March 7, 1965, more than 600 African Americans were beaten by police, tear gassed and attacked by police dogs while marching across the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama for voting rights and to protest the killing of Jimmie Lee Jackson. Alabama Governor George Wallace, prior to the protest, banned the marchers from walking across the bridge.

The march was led by John Lewis, a member of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, (SNCC) and Hosea Williams, a member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).  As they reached the south end of the bridge, they were stopped by police and ordered to go back across the bridge. The marchers did not move. The police again told them to go back. When the marchers did not obey, police attacked them. Sixteen marchers were injured and hospitalized.

Bloody Sunday was the first of three marches. The second march, led by Dr. Martin Luther King on March 9, ended on the south side of the bridge. They were again met by police and instructed to end the protest. Dr. King and the marchers kneeled and prayed. Afterward, they walked back across the bridge. The third march took place after civil rights leaders sought and received legal protection from Federal District Court Judge Frank M. Johnson, Jr. He ordered Governor Wallace to allow the civil rights protest march from Selma to Montgomery.

On March 21, more than 3000 people walked four days for voting rights of African Americans. When they arrived at the State Capitol on March 25, they numbered more than 25,000. At the gathering, Dr. King delivered one of his most memorable speeches, "How Long Not Long." On August 6, 1965, President Lyndon Johnson signed into law the Voting Rights Act guaranteeing African Americans the right to vote. Also see Viola Liuzzo.
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PICTURES:

L:
South view of bridge. M: Sign in front of the Edmund Pettus Bridge. R: View of bridge on Bloody Sunday, public domain. Color pictures taken December 23, 2011 and December 25, 2008.
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SOURCES:

Books
Appiah, Kwame, Anthony and Gates, Henry Louis, ed. "Africana The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience." 1st ed. New York: Civitas, 1999. Print.

Branch, Taylor. "At Canaan's Edge, America in the King Years 1965-68." New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006. Print.


Rubel, David. "The Coming Free: The Struggle for African-American Equality." New York: DK Publishing, 2005. Print.

Internet
"Jimmie Lee Jackson - Determining the Facts." nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/133semo/133facts2.htm, Web 08 Feb. 2015.   

"Martin Luther King and the Global Struggle Freedom Struggle - Jackson, Jimmie Lee (1938-1965)." mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_jackson_jimmie_lee_19381965/, Web 20 Dec. 2008.


Magazines
“Civil Rights Face Off at Selma - The Savage Season Begins.” Life Magazine, 19 Mar. 1965: 30-37. Print.

Site Visits
Edmund Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 08 Mar. 2015.
Edmund Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 07 Mar. 2015.
Edmund Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 22 Dec. 2011.
Edmund Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 05 Aug. 2009.
Edmund Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 25 Dec. 2008.
Edmund Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 28 Dec. 2006.
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SUBMITTED: August 14, 2008. Updated March 14, 2015.
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New
Edmund Pettus Bridge
Selma, Alabama

            
 
        
Selma 50 Anniversary Jubilee

On March 7, 1965, more than 600 African Americans were beaten by police, tear gassed and attacked by police dogs while marching across the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama for voting rights and to protest the killing of Jimmie Lee Jackson. Alabama Governor George Wallace, prior to the protest, banned the marchers from walking across the bridge.

On March 7 and 8, 2015, Selma commemorated Bloody Sunday and the Voting Rights Act being signed into law August 6, 1965. Also see Viola Liuzzo.
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PICTURES:

Top:
Brown Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Second L:
Brick incased church display, memorials and church sanctuary.
Third: Edmund Pettus Bridge on March 7, 2015.
Bottom: 50 Anniversary Bloody Sunday March (March 8, 2015) and history marker. Pictures taken March 7 and 8, 2015.
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SOURCES:

Books
Appiah, Kwame, Anthony and Gates, Henry Louis, ed. "Africana The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience." 1st ed. New York: Civitas, 1999. Print.

Branch, Taylor. "At Canaan's Edge, America in the King Years 1965-68." New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006. Print.

Rubel, David. "The Coming Free: The Struggle for African-American Equality." New York: DK Publishing, 2005. Print.

Internet
"Jimmie Lee Jackson - Determining the Facts." nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/133semo/133facts2.htm, Web 08 Feb. 2015.

"Martin Luther King and the Global Struggle Freedom Struggle - Jackson, Jimmie Lee (1938-1965)." mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_jackson_jimmie_lee_19381965/, Web 20 Dec. 2008.


Magazines
“Civil Rights Face Off at Selma - The Savage Season Begins.” Life Magazine, 19 Mar. 1965: 30-37. Print.

Site Visits
Edmund Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 08 Mar. 2015.
Edmund Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 07 Mar. 2015.
Edmund
Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 22 Dec. 2011.
Edmund Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 05 Aug. 2009.
Edmund Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 25 Dec. 2008.
Edmund Pettus Bridge. Selma, AL. 28 Dec. 2006.
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SUBMITTED: March 14, 2015.
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New 
Dallas County Courthouse
Selma, AL

On February 15, 1965, Reverend C.T. Vivian and scores of local African Americans attempted to register to vote at the Dallas County Courthouse in Selma, AL.  Sheriff Jim Clark, a devout segregationist accompanied by a team of deputies, blocked the courthouse entrance. Vivian appealed to Clark's sense of fairness.  Clark responded by striking Vivian in the face with a billy club. Deputies pushed people away from the courthouse and forced cameramen to stop recording.

Two days later, after addressing a meeting at Zion Chapel Methodist Church in Marion, AL. Reverend C.T. Vivian joined the night march from the church to nearby city jail. Marion’s police chief announced over a loudspeaker that everyone is to go home or back to the church. Seconds later, streetlights went out and police began beating marchers with clubs. Twenty-six year-old army veteran Jimmie Lee Jackson located his eighty-two year-old grandfather Cager Lee lying in the street. He was beaten and bleeding. Jimmie Lee gathered his grandfather and his grandmother Viola Jackson, rushed them to Mack’s Café where troopers followed them. One of the troopers hit Ms. Jackson and knocked her to the floor. Jimmie Lee sprang to her defense. A trooper hit him in the face and shot him in the stomach at close range. Jimmie Lee Jackson died February 26, 1965.

Twenty days later, marchers led by John Lewis and Hosea Williams were beaten by local and state police at the foot of the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, AL.  Also see Viola Liuzzo and Edmund Pettus Bridge.
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PICTURE:

Dallas County Courthouse.
Picture taken December 25, 2008. Video: The Fight for the Right to Vote - Never Forget.
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SOURCES:
                       
Books
Appiah, Kwame, Anthony and Gates, Henry Louis, ed. "Africana The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience." 1st ed. New York: Civitas, 1999. Print.

Branch, Taylor. "At Canaan's Edge, America in the King Years 1965-68." New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006. Print.

Rubel, David. "The Coming Free: The Struggle for African-American Equality." New York: DK Publishing, 2005. Print.


Internet
"
Martin Luther King and the Global Struggle Freedom Struggle - Jackson, Jimmie Lee (1938-1965)." mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_jackson_jimmie_lee_19381965/, Web 20 Dec. 2008.

Margalit Fox. "
Jim Clark Dies at 84." nytimes.com/2007/06/07/us/07clark.html?_r=0, Web 20 Dec. 2008.
"Eyes on the Prize I Interviews." digital.wustl.edu/e/eop/eopweb/cla0015.0490.021sheriffjamesclark.html, Web 7 Jan. 2015.

"The Fight for the Right to Vote - Never Forget." YouTube.com, Web 8 Feb. 2015.

Magazines
“Civil Rights Face Off at Selma - The Savage Season Begins.” Life Magazine, 19 Mar. 1965: 30-37. Print.

Site Visits
Dallas County Courthouse. Selma, AL. 05 Aug. 2009.
Dallas County Courthouse. Selma, AL. 25 Dec. 2008.
Dallas County Courthouse. Selma, AL. 28 Dec. 2006.
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SUBMITTED: February 8, 2015.
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All pictures taken by Percy White and are the property of FindFamilyRoots.com unless otherwise indicated.

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